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Full text of "National Parks and Emergency Conservation"

rHE NATIONAL PARKS 

S^AND EMERGENCY 
mS CONSERVATION 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Harold L. Ickes, Secretary 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Arno B. Cammerer, Director 



THE NATIONAL PARKS 
AND EMERGENCY 
CONSERVATION 



BY 

ISABELLE F. STORY 

Chief, Division of Public Relations 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1933 



CONTENTS 

Page 

The national park idea 3 

National park ideals and standards 6 

The national monuments 8 

Proposed increases in the park and monument system . . 9 

Establishment and organization of the National Park 

Service 10 

Local administration n 

Educational uses 12 

What the landscape architects and engineers do ... . 15 

Meet the wild animals — enjoy the fishing 18 

how the men of the c.c.c. aid conservation 21 

The national parks at a glance 25 

National monuments administered by the National Park 

Service 28 

National military parks in which conservation work is 

being conducted 3 1 

State and county parks and metropolitan sections of 
city parks in which emergency conservation work is 

being conducted 31 




THE NATIONAL PARKS AND EMERGENCY 
CONSERVATION 

f 

THE NATIONAL PARK IDEA 

ATIONAL parks are distinctly an American insti- 
tution. The national park idea had its inception 
in the United States, the first of such parks was 
established here, and the parks of this country 
have served as a model for the rest of the world. 
Sixty-five years ago no national parks existed. 
Shortly afterward the Yellowstone was created by act of Con- 
gress. Today the United States has 22 national parks. More- 
over, these areas have been studied by officials of foreign gov- 
ernments and have served as the basis for park creation and 
management in Canada and South America, in Europe, and 
even in Asia and Africa. 

Americans may well be proud of their parks. These areas 
contain the most magnificent scenery in a country replete with 
scenic features; many of them are of historic interest, some 
containing the ruined homes and implements of maintaining 
life of an otherwise forgotten people of a thousand or so years 
ago; and others are of such scientific interest that some of the 
best colleges of the country use them as outdoor classrooms in 
which to conduct summer schools. 

More important yet, from a broad viewpoint, the national 
park system is a definite expression of the highest in our Ameri- 
can code of government — equality for all. 

In the United States the best of our natural scenery and our 
most interesting scientific and historic places are retained in 
public ownership, for the benefit and use of all the people. In 
the Old World, before our national park idea was imported 
there, the reverse condition obtained. 

The history of the social use of lands is interesting. Always 
in the early days, as one traces the rise and fall of nations, 
organized government meant organization for the ruling few. 
The choicest lands were reserved, in princely gardens and 
forests, for the mighty of the earth. Heavy, almost inhuman, 
punishments were meted out to the person of humble station 
who shot a bird or 4-legged animal in a well-stocked preserve 
maintained for the shooting parties of the lords of the manor. 

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The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

For instance, when at the height of their power the Kings of 
England had as one of their most cherished prerogatives the 
power to convert any area they wished into a preserve for 
their personal pleasure in the chase. But they went too far, 
and the people and the barons combined to force on King 
John that great constitutional code, the Magna Carta, in which 
were certain laws limiting the kingly powers in regard to 
disposal of such lands. 

It was a far step, in years and in social progress, from King 
John's time to a day in 1870 when, out on our western frontier, 
a group of men voluntarily relinquished their legal and moral 
right to profit through private ownership of the area now 
included in Yellowstone National Park, and instead started a 
movement that two years later resulted in the creation of our 
first national park. Out of this movement also grew the great 
national forest system mentioned elsewhere in this paper. 

During the first three quarters of the nineteenth century the 
geysers and hot springs formations of the Yellowstone region 
were visited occasionally by Indians and by white trappers and 
hunters. Stories of the wonders of the geysers and strange hot 
springs filtered out. At first disbelieved, eventually they re- 
sulted in the official investigation of 1870. As the explorations 
were about completed, members of the party gathered about 
the camp fire one evening, discussing the marvels they had seen. 
They talked of the disposition of the area, all free public lands, 
suggesting that the individual members file claims, one taking 
the geysers, another the beautiful canyon of the Yellowstone 
River, and so on. 

Then came the momentous suggestion that resulted in our 
great national park system. Cornelius Hedges, a lawyer of 
Montana, advanced the thought that the individuals forego 
personal gain in order that the region, so unlike anything else 
in the country, be reserved as a national park for the benefit of 
the people for all time. The idea caught the imagination of 
those present and they agreed to return to their homes and 
work for the establishment of such a park. As a result, Yellow- 
stone National Park was established in 1872 by act of Congress 
as a "pleasuring ground" for the people of the Nation. 

No other national parks were created until 1890, when the 
Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant Parks in California were 
established, followed in 1899 by Mount Rainier in Washington. 
Since then the national park system has progressed steadily. 

[5] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



Even before the Yellowstone, however, the United States 
Government showed its interest in the public ownership of 
lands valuable from a social-use standpoint. In 1832 the 

Hot Springs Reservation 
in Arkansas was estab- 
lished by act of Congress, 
because of the medicinal 
qualities believed to be 
contained in the waters. 
According to tradition, 
even the Indian tribes of 
the vicinity, who had 
long battled for the own- 
ership of the healing 
waters in which they 
believed the "Great 
Spirit" to be ever pres- 
ent, had finally declared 
a truce under which the 
benefits were extended 
to the sick of all tribes. 
In 1 92 1 the Hot Springs 
Reservation became a 
national park. It can in 
no sense of the word be 
called our first national park, however, because in its early reser- 
vation there was no idea of park use; it was definitely a place for 
the treatment of sick people. Now, while the hot springs are still 
available to the people under proper regulation, the area itself 
is a beautiful park, with motor roads and trails winding over 
and around its wooded hills, and recreation and relaxation are 
stressed almost as much as the use of the hot waters. 




A Valuable Find at Mesa Verde National Park 



NATIONAL PARK IDEALS AND STANDARDS 

National parks, always created by act of Congress, are re- 
served because of some unusual quality or natural wonder, or 
some historic or scientific feature of national interest. In the 
field of natural wonders, each park represents the highest type 
of its particular feature, and duplication of the major features 
of existing national parks is avoided in enlarging the system. 
It is important always that each park be sufficiently large to 
allow of adequate development from the tourist standpoint. 

[6] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

In establishing national parks no thought is given to geo- 
graphic location. The area proposed for national park use is 
considered primarily from the standpoint of whether or not its 
principal features are of broad, national interest. 

No consideration of commercialism enters into park crea- 
tion. The major function is the promotion of the well-being of 
Americans through the health-giving qualities of inspiration, 
relaxation, and recreation in pure, unpolluted air, in natural 
surroundings of inspiring grandeur. 

Many of the parks contain noble forests, but the trees are 
preserved for their beauty and never considered as lumber. It 
is a strange fact, but often the trees that add most to the beauty 
of the landscape in reality have no commercial value. 

There are wild animals in abundance, but they never are 
considered from the standpoint of food supply. All hunting is 
forbidden except that called in park parlance "hunting with 
the camera." Many an erstwhile hunter, having laid down his 
gun for a camera while in a park, never cares to shoulder a gun 
again. The gentle-eyed deer becomes a friend, not an intended 
victim. 

There are great waterfalls, but they are never harnessed. 
Outside the parks are more than enough falls to supply the 
power needs of the Nation. Those in the parks feed man's hun- 
ger for beauty — a demand that, long denied, seems stifled; but 
that given a chance in the unmarred outdoors thrives and 
increases and gives man a broader outlook on life. 




Bear Feeding Grounds, Yellowstone National Park 

If] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



THE NATIONAL MONUMENTS 

Another group of reservations similar to the national parks in 
concept and administration are the national monuments. In 
order to insure the protection of places of national interest from 
a scientific or historic standpoint, Congress in 1 906 passed a law 
known as the "Antiquities Act", which gave to the President of 
the United States authority "to declare by public proclama- 
tion historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and 
other objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated 
upon lands owned or controlled by the Government of the 
United States to be national monuments." There are now 66 
of these national monuments. Forty of them, with the 22 
national parks already mentioned, make up the great national 
park and monument system now administered by the National 
Park Service of the Department of the Interior. Sixteen such 
areas are administered by the Forest Service of the Department 
of Agriculture, to simplify administration, since they occur on 
areas already having national forest status. Ten other monu- 
ments, established to preserve battlefields and other features 
important in our military history, are under the jurisdiction of 
the War Department, as are 1 3 national military parks. Nego- 
tiations have been under way for several years, with the approval 
of the Secretary of War, to transfer the military parks and 
monuments to the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, the 
bureau established by Congress for the express purpose of admin- 
istering the country's national parks and national monuments. 

Because of their similarity in purpose and ideals, all emer- 
gency conservation work in the military parks and monuments 
has been intrusted to the National Park Service, to be con- 
ducted along the same general lines as such work in the national 
parks and monuments under the Department of the Interior. 

The exhibits in the national monuments run the gamut from 
the ruined dwellings of Indians who lived a thousand or so 
years ago to historic areas of the middle nineteenth century; 
from trees and plants petrified — apparently turned to stone — 
millions of years ago, to magnificent groves of living trees. 

By far the greater number of monuments are rich in human 
associations. Those of the Southwest in particular are a vast 
storehouse of treasures of antiquity. Research constantly 
brings to light new facts about the peoples who lived on that 
part of the continent long before the footsteps of the first white 
man were recorded only temporarily in the shifting desert sands. 

[8] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

For instance, by removing tons of earth literally shovelful by 
shovelful, by hand labor, a few years ago a vast apartment 
house was uncovered that was built and occupied probably a 
thousand years ago. Modern man had no such apartment 







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Horseback Party and Guard House Mountain, Glacier National Park 

house until 1887, when the first one was built in New York 
City. Often a sealed-up cave is opened, to disclose a great 
earthen jar, perfectly preserved, that was made by hand 
hundreds of years ago. Such a find makes one think; think 
particularly of the fact that to make that bowl some person, 
probably an Indian woman, carried water on her back up a 
steep cliff from some far-away water hole or creek. Life was 
a very different thing in those days to what it is now. 

PROPOSED INCREASES IN THE PARK AND MONUMENT SYSTEM 

The national park system is not yet complete. Nevertheless, 
only areas which meet the standards set up by the existing 
major parks are considered for inclusion in the system. 

It is hoped eventually to make complete this national 
gallery of scenic, historic, and scientific displays. In the field 
of parks, for instance, Congress has already given authority 
for the addition of four important areas to the system. One is 

[9] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



. 



the Shenandoah Park project in Virginia, important both 
scenically and historically. Another is the Mammoth Cave 
region of Kentucky, a lodes tone of travel for generations. 
Isle Royale in Michigan is important for its island beauty and 

its great herds of moose. These 
parks and the Morristown Histori- 
cal National Park in New Jersey 
cannot be established until the 
lands within the approved bound- 
aries have been acquired and 
donated to the United States. 

Of the four, the Morristown 
Park is nearest completion, and 
plans now call for the transfer of 
that area to the Federal Govern- 
ment and its dedication as a 
national park on the Fourth of 
July. The date is peculiarly fit- 
ting, since the area to be preserved 
in the new park is one of the most 
famous areas in Revolutionary 
War history. Had it not been for 
Morristown and Baron von Steu- 
ben, who drilled the colonial 
army there, the glorious victory 
at Yorktown in all probability 
would not have been possible. 
Among other areas which should be included in the park system 
are the Everglades of Florida and a typical desert-cactus area. 
New monuments are created from time to time as areas of his- 
toric or scientific interest demand national protection. 




Measuring the Trails 



ESTABLISHMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF THE 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

It was not until 19 16, forty-four years after the establishment 
of Yellowstone National Park, that the National Park Service 
was created in the Department of the Interior as the definite 
Federal agency to maintain the areas " dedicated and set apart 
for the benefit and enjoyment of the people." 

Until 19 1 5 the various national parks and national monu- 
ments had received limited supervision as part of the miscel- 
laneous work handled in the Office of the Secretary of the 

[10] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

Interior. In that year Secretary Franklin K. Lane, realizing the 
specialized nature of national park work and the desirability of 
unifying the parks into one definite system, induced Stephen 
T. Mather, an old college friend and a keen lover of the moun- 
tains and the outdoors generally, to accept appointment as his 
assistant for the purpose of devoting his energies entirely to 
park matters. After the passage of the act creating the National 
Park Service, Mr. Mather was appointed its first Director. 
Horace M. Albright, appointed as Assistant Director of the 
Service at that time, in 1929 succeeded Mr. Mather as Director. 
The general administrative work of the National Park Serv- 
ice is carried on in the Washington office. That is the place 
where all policy matters are decided; detailed estimates pre- 
pared of appropriations needed for park work and accurate cost 




Glacier Point Lookout, Tosemite National Park 

records kept of every cent of Government money expended; 
appointments to all field positions considered; broad naturalist 
and historical programs worked out for field use; and general 
public relations work maintained, including the preparation 
and distribution of park literature and visual educational mat- 
ters of various types. 

LOCAL ADMINISTRATION 

Each of the national parks is in charge of a local superin- 
tendent, who resides in the park and is responsible to the head- 
quarters office in Washington for all activities within the area 
under his control. In several of the smaller parks the super- 
intendent has only four or five assistants. In the larger ones, 

[11] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

such as the Yellowstone and the Yosemite, a large force is 
necessary and includes protective, clerical, educational, and 
engineering assistants. 

The protective work is done by the ranger force, headed by a 
chief ranger, who reports to the superintendent. The per- 
manent ranger force is the all-year nucleus around which is 
built up the larger summer temporary force to handle the in- 
creased work of the tourist season. All of the ranger posi- 
tions, permanent and temporary, are filled by civil-service 
appointment. Ranger duties include checking travel, directing 
traffic, enforcing the rules and regulations promulgated by the 
Secretary of the Interior for the protection of the park, giving 
information to tourists, fire fighting, improvement of trails, 
repair of telephone lines, protection of wild animals, fish plant- 
ing, supervision of camp grounds, and numerous other duties. 
Owing to the responsibilities and hardships involved in the 
work, no men under 2 1 or over 35 years of age are considered 
for appointment as ranger. 

The more important of the national monuments are in charge 
of local custodians. The group of southwestern national monu- 
ments is in charge of a superintendent, through whom the 
custodians report. 

Through new arrangements with the Civil Service Commis- 
sion the ranger service in the national parks and monuments 
has been professionalized and requires a college education. 
Both permanent and temporary rangers henceforth will be 
appointed through civil-service examination based not only 
upon practical protective knowledge but also upon specialized 
knowledge of biology, geology, forestry, archeology, or history. 

EDUCATIONAL USES 

As has already been indicated, the national parks and 
national monuments offer exceptional opportunities for in- 
formal education. The education afforded in these areas is not 
the kind that is acquired in schools or from textbooks. Rather, 
the city dweller in the parks has an opportunity to acquire, 
under the leadership of ranger naturalists, information about 
trees and plants that all skilled woodsmen know almost as 
second nature. The person untrained in the sciences, seeing a 
great work of nature such as the Grand Canyon, takes a brief 
course in popular geology when he inquires of the naturalist as 
to just how the great gorge came into existence, how long it 

[12] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 




Entrance to Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park 

was in the making, and why the banded colorings. So with the 
Yellowstone geyser fields. "What makes the geysers geyze?" 
is a popular question; "Do the geysers freeze in winter?" 
is another, and so on. In the Yosemite, seeing great Half Dome 
towering nearly 5,000 feet above the valley, the natural im- 
pulse is to ask what happened to the other half; and here again 
is a brief lesson in geology. 

In other words, the educational service in the national parks 
and monuments is a definite outgrowth of the demands of visitors 
for information as to the why and wherefore of the interesting 
and unusual things encountered along the beaten track or 
out-of-the-way trail. 

[13] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



This demand for knowledge is met primarily in two ways — 
through the ranger naturalist service and through the museums. 
The ranger naturalists are men and women trained in the 
sciences and in public contacts. They conduct parties out on 




An Indian Dancer at Yosemite 

the park trails on short or long trips and give informal talks at 
the camp fires in the public auto camps, in the lodge and hotel 
lobbies, and in the museums. 

The museums in the parks are designed primarily to interest 
the average visitor in finding out for himself just what the 
park has to offer. It has been said that the museum exhibits 
are in reality only the index to the park itself, which is the 
real museum of nature. 

In the prehistoric monuments, of course, the museum exhibits 
are different. There one sees on display the implements in use 
a thousand years ago in grinding corn, and other ordinary 
routine of life — a sandal or other bit of clothing or personal 
adornment, and shreds of baskets, and pottery of many designs 
and colors. 

[14] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

We call visiting one of these prehistoric exhibits an educa- 
tional proceeding or a study in archeology, but really it is just 
getting a little first-hand information as to how our neighbors 
of many centuries ago lived. And we find ourselves quite as 
curious about them as we are about our next-door neighbors. 

WHAT THE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS 
AND ENGINEERS DO 

Congress in establishing the National Park Service outlined 
its function to be the preservation of the national parks, monu- 
ments, and other reserva- 
tions assigned to its juris- 
diction in their natural 
condition for the use and 
enjoyment of American 
citizens of all times. 

Carrying out this man- 
date involves the serious 
responsibility of conserv- 
ing the finest natural scen- 
ery the country has to offer 
and of guarding nearly 
15,000,000 acres of terri- 
tory, at the same time 
making the parks and mon- 
uments accessible to nearly 
4,000,000 people who visit 
them annually. 

To keep the natural 
beauty of mountain, forest, 
lake, and waterfall un- 

A Naturalist and His Pet Marmot S P° iled and Y et within eaS Y 

access of such a multi- 
tude of visitors is an interesting though often difficult problem. 
Quoting the landscape architects, upon whom devolves the 
responsibility for this phase of park activities, the reverse of 
the famous principle used by the ostrich generally is followed, 
for roads, trails, and buildings all should provide a maximum 
of scenic view, at the same time being as inconspicuous as 
possible themselves. 

The landscape process begins with selecting locations which 
do not tear up the landscape or obtrude into important views. 

[15] 




The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



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This is followed by a study of the design, which endeavors to use 
native materials and other architectural features that will har- 
monize the structure with its surroundings. The last phase of the 
problem is the placing of any plant materials necessary to cure 
unavoidable damage 
that may result from 
the construction. 

The range of na- 
tional park landscape 
problems is highly in- 
teresting and diversi- 
fied. It runs the gamut 
from dog kennels in 
Alaska to colonial 
plantations in Vir- 
ginia, from adobe 
nouses with cactus 
gardens in the South- 
west to subarctic road- 
side plantings in 
Maine, and from lake- 
side hotels in Montana 
to hot-springs develop- 
ments in Arkansas. 

The actual construc- 
tion work, of course, 
devolves upon the en- 
gineers, and all studies 
of the physical prob- 
lems of each park are 
made by the landscape 
men, the engineers, 
and the individual 
park superintendents, 
and in special cases 
of historical interest by the historians. When a general scheme 
of development has been arrived at, a so-called "master plan", 
is prepared by the landscape architects on which is charted 
an outline of all future construction work. Using this master 
plan as a guide, designs are then worked out for the individual 
items, such as roads, buildings, parking areas, bridges, trails, 
and numerous miscellaneous projects. 

[16] 



4# :T 






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Reforestation 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



The supplying of adequate living accommodations for visi- 
tors is an important phase of national park development, espe- 
cially in those parks handling from 100,000 to nearly half a 
million visitors annually. The National Park Service, in 

addition to providing 
roads and trails and 
the necessary build- 
ings for carrying on 
the administration of 
the parks, also pro- 
vides free public auto- 
mobile camps. The 
main camps in the 
larger parks have all 
the modern improve- 
ments, with water, 
electric lighting, sani- 
tary conveniences, 
open fireplaces, and 
firewood is furnished 
to all visitors without 
charge. 

Not so many years 
ago most motorists 
making use of these 
camp grounds carried 
their own equipment, 
pitched their own 
tents, and cooked their 
own meals. But the 
gradual change in the 
habits of motorists 
has brought about 
h , the introduction and 

expansion of house- 
keeping cabins and cafeteria service in many larger camps. 
Experience has proved that the only practicable method of 
providing accommodations other than the automobile camps 
is through private capital, operating under Government 
franchise and close supervision. Hotels, lodges, transporta- 
tion facilities, and various types of store service all are oper- 
ated under this plan, as are the housekeeping cabins and 

[17] 




The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

cafeterias in the public camps. Interesting private capital in 
this development has not always been an easy matter, since the 
majority of the parks have a short tourist season and in addi- 
tion are a considerable distance from commercial markets, 
with resultant increase in cost of commodity purchases. The 
National Park Service takes into consideration all these factors 
and also the needs of the public in recommending approval of 
rates by the Secretary of the Interior. It is an interesting fact 
that, despite the short operating season and the difficulties of 
transporting supplies and equipment, rates in the national 
park hotels and lodges are less than those charged for similar 
accommodations at popular resorts not under Government 
control. 

MEET THE WILD ANIMALS— ENJOY THE FISHING 

One of the most fascinating features of the national parks is 
the opportunity they afford visitors to meet face to face wild 
animals such as their pioneer forefathers encountered in mov- 
ing westward from the Atlantic seaboard. Not so many 
years ago these animals roamed the entire United States in 
vast herds. Today, outside of zoological parks, there are com- 
paratively few places where they may be viewed, and of these 
places the national parks take first rank. 

The park visitors want animal stories, and more animal 
stories. One that always engenders keen interest is that of the 
Yellowstone buffalo. Some twenty-odd years ago this animal, 
which once roamed the plains of the West in countless num- 
bers, had almost disappeared. A few animals were taken into 
the Yellowstone, formerly a natural range for these great 
beasts. These animals and the little remnant of the original 
Yellowstone herds were given protection, with the result that 
the new herd increased with great rapidity. Several years 
ago it reached a thousand head, the greatest number that the 
range in the vicinity of the park buffalo ranch can properly 
accommodate. Every year since then it has been necessary 
to give away or otherwise dispose of several hundred surplus 
animals to keep the buffalo from taking over the administra- 
tion of the whole park. 

While telling the story of the buffalo and of the traits and 
habits of the various other park animals, the ranger naturalists 
always explain that the national parks and monuments are 
absolute game sanctuaries. No hunting is permitted in any of 
them. It is further explained that this absolute ban on the 

[18] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

killing of animals within the parks and monuments actually is 
for the benefit of the hunters, for the wild life thrives and mul- 
tiplies under the protection afforded in these breeding places, 
and eventually there is an overflow from the parks to the 
adjoining territory. 

In relating the story of the restocking of the Yellowstone with 
buffalo, and also with antelope — another plains animal that had 
almost disappeared — emphasis is laid on the fact that no non- 
native species of animal, or plant for that matter, is ever 
introduced into a national park with the possible exception of 
game fish of other localities which occasionally are placed in 
otherwise barren waters in some park lake. 

Bears are a delight to the tourists, except to those who insist 
upon becoming too familiar with them and get nipped or 
scratched in reproof. It is often said by the park people that 
the quality which makes humans so enjoy the antics of the 
bears is that bruin is so very human in many of his reactions. 
In a number of the parks bear-feeding grounds provide an 
interesting and amusing spectacle. To these places are carted 
the left overs from the lodge and hotel kitchens. The bears 
become accustomed to the feeding time and congregate each 
evening for a hand-out of " combination salad." 

Many of the bears, sometimes singly and sometimes a mother 
bear with cubs, loiter along the roads to beg candy from the 
passing motorists. Feeding these bears is a harmless pas- 
time, so long as the food is thrown. It should never be fed 
directly from the hand, nor should one ever pretend to have 
food to make a bear pose for a picture. For the bear dislikes a 
practical joke as much as does his human brother. 

Glimpses of deer, elk, moose, antelope, and mountain sheep 
add much to the pleasure of a park trip. There are many 
smaller animals which provide much amusement, notably the 
little "picket pins", or ground squirrels, which sit up and beg 
for food and often climb into a visitor's lap when tactfully 
coaxed. For the bird lover also the parks are a paradise. 

A bird conservation problem that now faces the National 
Park Service is helping to save the trumpeter swan from extinc- 
tion. This bird, practically extinct a few years ago, has re- 
cently found the Yellowstone region a favorable nesting place, 
and the National Park Service is doing everything possible to 
protect the breeding places and the young birds until they 
become strong enough to fight their own battles. During the 

[19] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 





last two years a remarkable increase in the number of these 

swans has been noted. 
Although hunting is strictly banned in the national parks, 

fishing is permitted under 
regulations that insure 
against depletion of the 

^fej ^Jl ^ su PPly- No fishing li- 

tff censes are required by the 

■F^ ^iS Federal Government, but 

l^r^^^^Js; » in several of the parks 

M&LjI \ *— I where the State laws pre- 
vail it is necessary to ob- 
tain a State fishing license. 
This applies particularly 
to Yosemite, Sequoia, Las- 
sen Volcanic, General 
Grant, Grand Teton, 
Grarid Canyon, Acadia, 
Wind Cave, Zion, and 
Bryce Canyon. 

The waters of several of 
the parks contain excellent 
native game fish, while 
others at the time of park 
establishment were prac- 
tically barren. To insure 
good fishing, many mil- 
lions of eyed eggs and fin- 
gerlings are planted each 
year in park lakes and 
streams through the co- 
operation of Federal and 
State fish hatcheries. As a 
result of these activities 
there has been a marked 
improvement in fishing conditions, with a resultant larger catch 
per capita of visitors last year than previously reported. 

The best fishing, of course, is in the lakes and streams away 
from the main motor roads. Even along the highways, how- 
ever, the fish are plentiful, but they also are educated. Con- 
stant fishing by amateur fishermen accustom the fish to most 
forms of artificial bait, so that they become wary — a fact 




Tree-Framed View of Mount Rainier 



20 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



which adds to the enjoyment of the skilled fisherman. Even 
the Grand Canyon, in Arizona's, semidesert, is fast becoming 
an angler's paradise through the stocking of Bright Angel and 
several other creeks. The 
large fish hatchery oper- 
ated at Yellowstone Lake 
in Yellowstone National 
Park is a great attraction 
to visitors. Special guides 
take parties through at 
stated hours, and obser- 
vation platforms and aqua- 
ria are so arranged that 
the entire operation may 
be easily studied. 

The few regulations laid 
down by the Park Service 
concerning fishing are all 
designed to aid fishing con- 
ditions. The number and 
size of fish that may be 
taken in any one day is 
limited, according to the 
supply in a particular body 
of water. Sometimes, to 
protect newly planted 
young fish or promote the 
come-back of an over- 
fished lake or stream, fish- 
ing in particular waters is 
temporarily suspended. 

For the convenience of 
fishermen who visit the 
various national parks, the 
stores in these reservations 
carry in stock and have on sale each season a large quantity 
of appropriate fishing tackle and other necessary equipment. 




A Horseback Party in Yosemite National Park 



HOW THE MEN OF THE C.G.G. AID CONSERVATION 

With the establishment of literally hundreds of emergency 
conservation camps, approved under the emergency conser- 
vation program of the President, a number of our young 

[21] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

citizens have an opportunity to help in what is probably the 
biggest conservation movement in history. The members of 
the Civilian Conservation Corps, under trained leadership, 
are directing their efforts toward protecting and in some cases 







A Ranger Near Mount Hoffman, Yosemite National Park 

improving conditions in the national parks and monuments, 
the national military parks, the national forests; in State parks 
and forests; and in various county parks and metropolitan sec- 
tions of municipal parks. The installation of camps in all 
these areas has proceeded only upon approval of the President, 
after consideration of proposed plans by the Director of Emer- 
gency Conservation Work and the Special Advisory Council. 

Much of the woi'k on the different classes of reservations is 
the same and is directed primarily toward conservation of 
forests. The approved types of forest protection now being 
undertaken include protection against fire and insect infes- 
tation, blister rust and tree disease, and roadside fixation and 
erosion control. 

The work is divided into two broad classes, however — con- 
servation for complete preservation in the national parks, 
monuments, military areas, State parks and allied reserva- 
tions; and conservation for use in the National and State forests. 

[22] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



In addition to the emergency conservation activities in the 
65 camps in the national parks and monuments (as approved 
June 15, 1933; others to be designated later), the National 
Park Service has been charged with the administration of the 
conservation work in 1 1 1 camps in the military parks and the 
State, county, and metropolitan sections, because the same 
principles of conservation for complete preservation govern all 
these classes of reservations. Similarly, the Civilian Conservation 
Corps assigned to work on the State forests are under the direction 
of the United States Forest Service, where upon wise conservation 
of tree stands rests the hope of a continuance of our national 
wood supply, one of our most important natural resources. 




Mount Oberlin, Glacier National Park 

The conservation activities directed by the National Park 
Service take the form of landscape protection rather than solely 
forest protection. All work is planned and conducted with 
detailed attention to the landscape values. Forested areas in 
these reservations must be kept in their natural condition so 
far as possible. The removal of underbrush, dead trees, wind- 
falls, and other natural debris from old forests is undertaken 
only to such an extent as is necessary to remove serious fire 
hazards. Ground cover is essential in the complete protection 

[23J 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



of bird life and small mammals, and also is part of the natural 
forest scene. Timber-cutting is undertaken only when it is 
designed to improve the quality of young growth on cut-over 
or burned-over lands. 

To many of the young volunteers of the Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps the type of work undertaken is art entirely new 
experience. The first few weeks at outdoor labor with the ax 
and shovel are not easy, as the many college men who work in 
lumber camps during the summer vacations know. Sore mus- 
cles rebel at the unaccustomed exercise, but dogged persever- 
ance wins. After a couple of weeks muscles ripple smoothly as 
the ax is wielded, and there is a feeling of power, of physical 
fitness, that makes up for the toughening process. The boys 
are woodsmen now, and like it. 

It is the hope of the National Park Service that many men 
now m the emergency conservation work may find the activ- 
ities so to their liking that when the emergency is over they 
will continue to devote themselves to conservation, perhaps 
finding that their life work lies in a national or State park. 

Certainly future visitors to the parks and monuments will 
get an added degree of enjoyment of the natural beauties they 
behold as a result of the loyal efforts of the Civilian Con- 
servation Corps. It may be that some of the magnificent tree 
stands will owe their continued existence to the present con- 
servation activities against fire and various tree blights; that 
control of erosion along roadsides may mean the salvation of 
other objects of beauty. The youthful conservation workers, 
when mature men, doubtless will feel an increased interest in 
these great outdoor wonderlands for which they personally 
are doing so much. 



m$r '-■ 




Scene in Grand Teton National Park 

[24] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



3 








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«g^ ■« it- 1 B^^^ •'^^^■P 



Nature Guide Party on Top of Eagle Peak, Yosemite National Park 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Acadia, in Maine, contains a group of granite mountains on Mount 
Desert Island and a beautiful promontory on the opposite mainland across 
Frenchmans Bay. The only place on the eastern seaboard where sea and 
mountain meet. 

Brycc Canyon, in Utah, is a great amphitheater cut by erosion a 
thousand feet into the pink and white limy sandstones of the Paunsaugunt 
Plateau, and filled to the brim with myriads of fantastic figures carved by 
weathering influences, chiefly running water, wind, and changes in tem- 
perature. The amphitheater is 3 miles in length and about 2 miles wide. 

Carlsbad Caverns, in New Mexico, a series of connected caverns of 
unusual magnificence and extent, located in the rugged foothills of the 
Guadalupe Mountains. The limestone decorations of these caverns are 
superb. 

Crater Lake, in Oregon, is famous principally for its large lake of 
extraordinary blue, located in the crater of an extinct volcano and en- 
circled by thousand-foot crater walls interestingly sculptured and tinted. 
The lake is 6 miles in diameter, with a maximum depth of 2,000 feet. 

General Grant, in California, contains the famous General Grant tree, 
one of the oldest and largest of the sequoia trees, and other interesting 
sequoias. 

Glacier, in Montana, is a region of rugged colorful mountains contain- 
ing 250 glacier-fed lakes of unusual beauty. In it are 60 small glaciers, 
the remnants of the once mighty ice sheets that ages ago covered this area. 
Its precipices, thousands of feet deep, afford interesting material for the 
study of geology 

Grand Canyon, in Arizona, contains the most spectacular portion of 
the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. This gorgeously colored 
canyon is the world's greatest example of stream erosion. It is nearly a 
mile deep and at its widest portion within the park is 18 miles across. 

[25] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 





U 1 



#ppf 






wesr 






'^SSfe^^r 



S&lteSlL 






^BaEBBHSEaa 



£*«/« jB«W Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
[26] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

Grand Teton, in Wyoming, includes the Grand Teton Mountain 
group, one of the noblest mountain massings of the world and one of the 
few that can be described accurately as cathedral-like. 

Great Smoky Mountains, in North Carolina and Tennessee, contains 
the most massive mountain uplift in eastern United States. In this area 
is the finest virgin hardwood forest in the United States, and also the 
largest virgin forest of red spruce. No other known area of equal size con- 
tains such a variety of plant life. 

Hawaii, in the Territory of Hawaii, includes the summits of three 
famous volcanoes, extinct Haleakala, on the Island of Maui, with a crater 
large enough to hold a fair-sized city, and the active volcanoes of Mauna 
Loa and Kilauea on the Island of Hawaii. Kilauea is known especially 
for the turbulent lake of fire that at times fills its crater. Tree ferns and 
other tropical vegetation add to the beauty of the park. 

Hot Springs, in Arkansas, is known for its hot waters, believed to 
possess healing properties since the days of the early Indians, long before the 
coming of the white man. Located in the picturesque Ouachita Mountains. 

Lassen Volcanic, in northern California, contains the most recently active 
volcano in the 48 States, having erupted less than 20 years ago. The park 
is an interesting exhibit of cinder cones, mud geysers, springs, and lava beds. 

Mesa Verde, in Colorado, has perhaps the most dramatic qualities of 
any park of the system. In it are the ruined homes of people who lived a 
thousand or so years ago and then disappeared, leaving behind them great 
communal dwellings. Cliff Palace, one of the community homes, contained 
at least 200 dwelling rooms before its upper walls crumbled into ruins. 

Mount McKinley, in Alaska, has as its main scenic feature the moun- 
tain for which it was named. This great peak reaches an altitude of 20,300 
feet and is the highest in North America. It rises higher above the sur- 
rounding country than any other mountain in the world, not excepting the 
Himalayas. The park was established to afford protection to its interesting 
herds of caribou and mountain sheep. 

Mount Rainier, in Washington, contains the largest accessible single- 
glacier peak system in the United States, spreading out and down over the 
sides of an extinct volcano. From the summit and cirque of Mount Rainier 
28 named glaciers move slowly downward, and there are others unnamed. 
The park also is famous for its wild-flower fields. 

Piatt, in Oklahoma, is another area of hot springs and other waters 
believed to possess medicinal qualities. 

Rocky Mountain, in Colorado, is a splendidly representative section 
of the Rockies. In nobility, in sheer glory of stalwart beauty, it would be 
difficult to find a mountain group that could excel the snow-capped peaks 
standing at parade behind the famous Longs Peak. 

Sequoia, in California, contains magnificent groves of sequoias or big 
trees, the oldest and largest of living things. The largest, the General 
Sherman, is nearly 275 feet above its mean base and has a circumference of 
over a hundred feet. The park ,also contains a spectacular section of the 
High Sierra, including Mount Whitney, highest peak in continental United 
States exclusive of Alaska. 

[27] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 




Fire Drill in Sequoia National Park 

Wind Cave, in South Dakota, contains a cave with several miles of 
galleries and numerous rooms, decorated with many beautiful crystal for- 
mations. 

Yellowstone, mostly in Wyoming but with small areas in Montana and 
Idaho, is the largest of our national parks. It contains, in its six main 
geyser fields, more and greater geysers than all the rest of the world com- 
bined. Another outstanding feature is the Grand Canyon of the Yellow- 
stone, interesting for its gorgeous coloring and interesting waterfalls. As a 
wild bird and animal preserve it is unequaled in the United States. 

Yosemite, in California, is a high mountain park of sheer beauty. In 
addition to Yosemite Valley, world famed for its loveliness, there are several 
other valleys of great charm. Many waterfalls of extraordinary height and 
majesty dash over the high granite cliffs into the valleys below. There are 
also three groves of sequoia trees. 

Zion National Park, in Utah, has as its principal feature Zion Canyon, 
a superb gorge varying in depth from 1,500 to 2,500 feet. Its precipitous 
walls are eroded in unusual forms and are vividly colored. 



NATIONAL MONUMENTS ADMINISTERED BY THE 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Arches, Utah, contains extraordinary examples of wind erosion in the 
form of gigantic arches, windows, and other unique formations. 

Aztec Ruins, New Mexico, has a prehistoric ruin of pueblo type con- 
taining 500 rooms; also other ruins. 

Bandelier, New Mexico, noted for its great number of cliff-dweller 
ruins of unusual ethnological and educational interest. Some of the tools, 
implements, and simple household equipment of the former inhabitants 
have been restored as they were centuries ago. 

[a8j 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Colorado, contains 10 miles of the 
deepest and most scenic portion of the Black Canyon; is in a predomi- 
natingly black or dark-colored granite formation streaked with light- 
colored granites. With a depth of 1,750 feet, at one point the width of 
the gorge from rim to rim is only 1 ,300 feet. 

Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, has many cliff dwellings in caves and 
crevasses containing records of cultural progress covering a longer period 
than any other ruins so far discovered in the Southwest. 

Capulin Mountain, New Mexico, has as its principal feature a huge 
cinder cone of geologically recent formation. 

Casa Grande, Arizona, contains ruins that are one of the most note- 
worthy relics of a prehistoric age and people within the limits of the United 
States. These ruins were discovered in 1694. 

Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, contains a large number of great pre- 
historic communal dwellings of intense archeological interest. 

Colonial, Virginia, containing three areas of historic importance in our 
colonial history with a connecting parkway — Jamestown Island, site of 
first permanent English settlement in America; the historic colonial town 
of Williamsburg; and Yorktown, where the culminating battle of the 
Revolution was fought. 

Colorado, Colorado, is a wonderful example of erosion, with lofty 
monoliths. 

Craters of the Moon, Idaho, contains remarkable fissure eruptions, 
volcanic cones, craters, lava flows, caves, and other volcanic phenomena. 

Death Valley, California, a fascinating desert region, including the 
lowest point in the United States, 270 feet below sea level, is interesting 
for its historical associations, geology, and plant life. 

Devils Tower, Wyoming, contains a remarkable natural rock tower 
of volcanic origin over 1,200 feet high. 

Dinosaur, Utah, has the fossil remains of great prehistoric animals. 

El Morro, New Mexico, contains an enormous sandstone rock eroded 
in the form of a castle upon which inscriptions were carved by the early 
Spanish explorers; also cliff-dweller ruins. 

Fossil Cycad, South Dakota, has deposits of interesting plant fossils. 

George Washington Birthplace, Virginia, includes the site of the 
birthplace of George Washington where upon the old foundations the 
birth house has been reproduced as far as possible; also the old family 
burial plot with graves of George Washington's father, grandfather, and 
great-grandfather. 

Glacier Bay, Alaska, contains great tidewater glaciers of keen scien- 
tific interest. 

Gran Quivira, New Mexico, has one of the most important of the 
earliest Spanish mission ruins in the Southwest and also pueblo ruins. 

Grand Canyon, Arizona, adjoining the Grand Canyon National Park. 
This monument provides new views of the famous Grand Canyon. 

Great Sand Dunes, Colorado, contains sand dunes which are among the 
largest and highest if not the greatest of any such dunes in the United States. 

[29] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 

Hovenweep, Utah and Colorado, has four groups of historic towers, 
pueblos, and cliff dwellings. 

Katmai, Alaska, is a dying volcanic region of scientific interest; includes 
the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. 

Lewis and Clark Cavern, Montana, is an immense limestone cavern 
decorated with stalactite formations. 

Montezuma Castle, Arizona, contains a prehistoric cliff-dweller ruin 
of unusual size, situated in a niche in face of a vertical cliff. 

Muir Woods, California, is notable for its great grove of redwood trees. 

Natural Bridges, Utah, has three natural bridges, the largest being 
223 feet high and 65 feet thick at the top of the arch. 

Navajo, Arizona, has numerous cliff-dweller ruins in a good state of 
preservation. 

Petrified Forest, Arizona, is of great scientific interest because of its 
abundance of petrified coniferous trees, one of which forms a natural 
bridge. 

Pinnacles, California, has many spire-like rock formations 600 to 1 ,000 
feet high, and also numerous caves and other formations. 

Pipe Spring, Arizona, contains an old stone fort, connected With early 
Mormon history, and a spring of pure water, most important to the early 
pioneers in the desert region. 

Rainbow Bridge, Utah, is a unique natural bridge in the shape of a 
rainbow. This bridge, very symmetrical in form, rises 300 feet above the 
water. 

Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, is a region of historic and scientific interest. 
Many famous old trails traversed by the early pioneers passed this way. 

Shoshone Cavern, Wyoming, is a cave of considerable extent deco- 
rated with incrustations of crystals. 

Sitka, Alaska, contains 16 totem poles of the best native workmanship; 
is of historic interest in the history of the Russians and early Indians. 

Tumacacori, Arizona, contains a ruined Franciscan mission dating 
back to the seventeenth century. 

Verendrye, North Dakota, includes Crowhigh Butte, from which ex- 
plorer Verendrye first beheld land beyond the Mississippi River. 

White Sands, New Mexico, is an area of glistening sands or deposits of 
wind-blown gypsum almost crystal clear and in a bright light resembling 
a vast snow field; has interesting plant and animal life. 

Wupatki, Arizona, contains prehistoric dwellings of ancestors of Hopi 
Indians. 

Yucca House, Colorado, has great mounds containing prehistoric ruins 
which when excavated are estimated to be of great archeological interest 
and educational value. 



[30] 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS IN WHICH CONSERVATION 
WORK IS BEING CONDUCTED 



Military park 


State 


Number of 
camps 




Georgia and Tennessee 


2 


Shiloh 


Tennessee 




do 




Pennsylvania 




Mississippi 




Virginia 




do 







STATE AND COUNTY PARKS AND METROPOLITAN SECTIONS OF 

CITY PARKS IN WHICH EMERGENCY CONSERVATION 

WORK IS BEING CONDUCTED 



State 


County 


Name of park 


Number of 

camps 




Geneva 


Geneva 


j 


Arkansas 

California 


Conway 


Petit Jean 


Pope 


Mount Nebo 


Calaveras 

Humboldt 

Santa Cruz 

Contra Costa and 
Alameda. 

San Diego 

Del Norte 

Jefferson 


Calaveras Big Trees 


Burlington-Humboldt 

California Red Wood 

East Bay Utility District 

Cuyamaca Rancho 


Prairie Creek 


Denver Mountain 




Butts 




Illinois 


Cook 




Indiana 


Will 




do 




Grundy 


Channahon-Morris 


La Salle 




Sangamon 

La Salle 


Springfield Metropolitan 

Starved Rock 


Jersey 


Pere Marquette 


Carroll 




Jackson and Union . 
Cook 


Giant City. 




Winnebago 

Lawrence 


Camp Grant Mil. Reservation . 


Iowa 


Spencer 


Lincoln 


Van Buren 

Jefferson 






Mills and Farmington 


Henry 


Des Moines 






Lee 






Delaware 


Backbone, Bixby, Silver Lake. 


I 

I 


Clayton 


Winneshiek 




Allamakee 






Fayette 






Buchanan 






Dubuque 













[S'l 



The National Parks and Emergency Conservation 



State, etc., parks in which emergency conservation work is being conducted — Cont. 



State 



Kansas 

Kentucky. . . 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Missouri. 

Nebraska .... 

New Jersey. . 
New York 



Ohio 

Oklahoma. . . 
Pennsylvania 

South Dakota 
Texas 



Vermont. . , 
Virginia . . . 
Washington 
Wisconsin . . 



County 



Ellis 

Hart, Barren, and 
Edmonson. 

Hancock 

Middlesex 

Bristol 

Huron 

Mason 

Clearwater 

Hubbard, Becker. . 

Carlton 

Itasca 

Franklin 

Barry 

Wayne 

Scarpy 

Dodge 

Dundy 

Sussex 

Essex 

Rockland 

Columbia 

Wyoming 

Tomkins 

Cattaraugus 

Westchester 

do 

Oswego 

Otesgo 

Onondaga 

Broome 

Herkimer 

Allegany 

Lucas 

Murray 

Allegheny 

Clarion, Jefferson.. 
Custer,Pennington. . 

Marion 

Lampasas 

Erath 

Jeff Davis 

Hamilton 

Blanco 

Palo Pinto 

Matagorda 

RandalljArmstrong . 

Brewster 

Windsor 

Caledonia 

Henrico 

Bath 

San Juan 

Island 

Milwaukee 

do 

do 



Name of park 



Fort Hays 

Mammoth Cave. 



Ellsworth-Bar Harbor 

Blue Hills Reservation 

Fall River 

Huron-Hayes 

Ludington-Pere Marquette . . 
Itasca 



Jay Cooke 

Scenic 

Meramec 

Roaring River 

Sam A. Baker 

Louisville Recreation Grounds 

Camp Fremont 

Camp Benkelman 

High Point 

Essex 

Palisades 

Taconic 

Letchworth 

Enfield 

Allegany 

Blue Mountain 

Poundridge 

Selkirk Shores 

Gilbert Lake 

Green Lakes 

Chenango Valley 

Thendara 

Quaker Run 

Toledo-Maumee 

Turner Falls 

Allegheny County 

Cook Forest 

Custer 

Caddo Lake 

Lampasas 

Erath 

Davis Mountain 

Hamilton 

Blanco 

Palo Pinto 

Tres Palacios 

Palo Duro 

Big Bend 

Ascutney 

Burke Mountain 

Richmond Battlefield 

Douthat 

Moran 

Deception Pass.* 

Sheridan Park 

Whitnall Park 

Honey Creek Parkway 



Number of 
camps 



182045 O— 33 



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